The Shinobazu area seen from the activities of a Chinese scholar, Zhu Shunshui (Shu Shunsui)

The Shinobazu area has played host to the vibrant activities of intellectuals throughout history. One early example is a Chinese scholar, Shu Shunsui (Zhu Shunshui)(1600-1682), who lived on the premises of the Mito Domain (today’s agriculture campus of the University of Tokyo) from 1668 until he died in 1682. Shu was mostly remembered for his contribution to the development of Confucianism studies in Japan.

After failing to revive the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) in China and strongly attracted by the sophistication of Chinese studies in Japan at the time, Shu fled to Japan and established rapport with Japanese intellectuals. Among his local friends, he was particularly close to Ando Sei’an (1622-1701) and Tokugawa Mitsukuni (1628-1701). His disciples and friends including Ando vigorously advocated for Confucianism and initiated the intellectual movement, Kogaku, or School of Ancient Learning.

Tokugawa Mitsukuni, the second feudal lord of Mito Domain, invited Shu and offered him residence in Tokugawa’s spare residence (nakayashiki) in Edo, today’s Yayoi area in Tokyo. In Shu’s final seventeen years before he died, he served as Mitsukuni’s teacher and advisor. The exchange of ideas on history and Classics between the two men led to a few significant projects in Japan. Shu helped name and redesign Koishikawa Korakuen Garden, a huge garden of 70,000m2 laid by Mitsukuni’s father and completed by Mitsukuni. Although some of its fine structures were destroyed in the 1923 earthquake and 1945 air raids, some scenery of Chinese taste, for example miniatures of the West Lake of Hangzhou and Mount Lu of Jiangxi, remain today.

Shu also designed Confucian temples. He drew detailed plans including placement of buildings of different functions, gates, corridors, bridges, and even designs of roofs (Fig 1). This plan was used in building Yushima Seido. It is said that he also personally supervised model making by the carpenters. The 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake burned down the temple and most exteriors and interiors were lost. Ito Chuta redesigned and expanded Taiseiden, the main hall of the temple (Fig 2). Obayashi executed the reconstruction. Chuta also designed the chairs inside Taiseiden (Fig 3). However it was said that the roof with mythical figures followed Shu’s original design. A Confucius Statue (Fig 4), among three Shu brought to Japan with him, is now kept in the collection of Yushima Seido. Ritual vessels that were transferred to the government survived the 1923 earthquake and war and are now in the collection of the Tokyo National Museum.

Fig. 1 Plan of a Confucian shrine drawn up by Shu Shunsui, Source: Fukushima Kanezo et. al., Kinsei Nihonno Jugaku, Iwanami, 1939; cited by Julia Ching “Chu Shun-Shui, 1600-82. A Chinese Confucian Scholar in Tokugawa Japan”, Monumenta Nipponica, 30: (2), 1975, p. 189.

Fig. 1 Plan of a Confucian shrine drawn up by Shu Shunsui,
Source: Fukushima Kanezo et. al., Kinsei Nihonno Jugaku, Iwanami, 1939; cited by Julia Ching “Chu Shun-Shui, 1600-82. A Chinese Confucian Scholar in Tokugawa Japan”, Monumenta Nipponica, 30: (2), 1975, p. 189.

2

Fig. 2 Taiseiden, Yushima Seido today

3

Fig. 3 湯島聖堂大成殿内椅子二種, 紫檀製 綠色緞子蒲団付. Source: 『伊東忠太建築作品』, 伊東博士作品集刊行會, 東京: 城南書院, 1941, p. 80.

4

Fig. 4 Confucius Statue that Shu Shunsui brought to Japan, in the collection of Yushima Seido. Source: 林俊宏, “朱舜水在日本的活動及其貢獻研究”,台北:秀威出版,2004, p. 189.

Today a monument dedicated to Shu stands in the agriculture campus at the University of Tokyo. This monument, with along Koishikawa Korakuen Garden, and Yushima Seido commemorates this man’s contribution to intellectual exchange and great ties between the Shinobazu area and Asia. The next article will focus on Yushima Seido’s connection with the development of exhibitionary culture and museums in Japan.

参考文献:
Ching, Julia, “Chu Shun-Shui, 1600-82. A Chinese Confucian Scholar in Tokugawa Japan”, Monumenta Nipponica, 30: (2), (Summer, 1975), pp. 177-91.

徐 興慶, 「東アジアの視野から見た朱舜水研究」, 「日本漢文学研究」, 200703, pp. 357-96.

林俊宏, “朱舜水在日本的活動及其貢獻研究”,台北:秀威出版,2004.

関口慶久, 「水戸藩の学問・教育遺産群を歩く」第4回「夢の学問・教育遺産 延方郷校」, 「広報みと」, 2008, http://www.city.mito.lg.jp/000271/000273/000294/001005/002519/p005215_d/fil/009.pdf

—, 「水戸藩の学問・教育遺産群を歩く」第6回「学問・教育の聖地 水戸孔子廟」, 「広報みと」, 2008, http://www.city.mito.lg.jp/000271/000273/000294/001005/002519/p005215_d/fil/011.pdf

—, 「水戸藩の学問・教育遺産群を歩く」第15回「学問・教育の父 朱舜水の遺産群」, 「広報みと」, 2009, http://www.city.mito.lg.jp/000271/000273/000294/001005/002519/p005226_d/fil/011.pdf

朱舜水記念会 編,『朱舜水』, 1912. 近代デジタルライブラリー:http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/992289, URL 2015年7月取得.

藤森照信 編, 『伊東忠太動物園』, 東京: 筑摩書房, 1995.

筑波大学大学院日本美術史研究室編, 『草創期の湯島聖堂: よみがえる江戸の「学習」空間 : 孔子祭復活百周年記念事業』, 東京: 清流出版社, 2007.

作成者  | 2016-04-23 (土)
タグ : , , , , , , ,

Copyright © 2014 東京大学大学院情報学環吉見俊哉研究室 contact at shinobazu-prj [at] googlegroups.com